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They work together to connect the rim, hub, and spoke bed, providing strength, stability, and load distribution. Here's a breakdown of their functions:

Spokes:

Load Bearing:

Spokes are the primary load-bearing components of a bicycle wheel. They transmit forces and tensions between the hub and rim, supporting the weight of the rider and absorbing various impacts and forces encountered during riding.

Wheel Trueness:

Spokes contribute to the trueness (alignment) of the wheel. Tensioned spokes help maintain the shape and balance of the wheel by evenly distributing the load and resisting lateral and radial forces. Proper spoke tension ensures that the wheel remains straight and doesn't wobble or distort under load.

Strength and Rigidity:

Spokes provide strength and rigidity to the wheel structure. The tensioned spokes form a network of interconnected triangles, known as a spoked wheel, which distributes forces evenly across the rim. This design offers excellent strength-to-weight ratio, allowing the wheel to withstand the lateral, radial, and torsional forces encountered during riding.

Power Transfer:

The tension in the spokes enables efficient power transfer from the hub to the rim. As the rider pedals, the force is transmitted through the hub, tensioning the spokes and rotating the rim. The spoke tension helps convert pedaling energy into forward motion, enhancing the efficiency of the bicycle.

Nipples :

Spoke Connection:

Nipples are small threaded components that thread onto the spoke ends. They serve as the interface between the spokes and the rim. The threaded connection allows for adjustment of spoke tension, which is crucial for wheel truing, balancing, and maintaining optimal spoke tension over time.

Wheel Truing and Maintenance:

Nipples enable the adjustment of spoke tension, allowing for wheel truing. By turning the nipple clockwise or counterclockwise, the tension in individual spokes can be increased or decreased, bringing the wheel back into proper alignment and minimizing wobbles or hops. Nipples also facilitate spoke replacement and maintenance tasks.

Stress Distribution:

Nipples distribute the spoke tension evenly across the rim. As the spokes are tensioned, the nipples transfer the forces from the spokes to the rim, helping to evenly distribute the load and stress. Properly tensioned spokes and evenly distributed forces contribute to the strength and longevity of the wheel.

Both spokes and nipples are crucial components in ensuring a strong, durable, and reliable bicycle wheel. Their combined functionality helps maintain wheel trueness, support the rider's weight, transmit power, and withstand the forces encountered during riding. Regular maintenance, including spoke tension adjustments and proper wheel truing, is important to ensure optimal performance and longevity of the wheel.